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Inca trail and machu picchu



INCA TRAIL AND MACHU PICCHU













The single track trail rose gradually through the jungle bush for three miles along the Cusichaca River. After a bridged river crossing, the trail became stone and cranked up 5000 feet in five miles. At 9100 feet, the last inhabited village on the Inca Trail was passed. Wayllabamba locals wondered of our purpose. The lead runners were about to blow a fuse as they crested the "pass of the dead woman" at 13,779 feet. Two more high passes, a 20 meter Inca tunnel, dense green groves of bush and trees, a long mountainside traverse, a strategic fortress, a "town in the clouds", and more ancient ruins led to a view of the Urubamba River gorge and the last aid station. A 3000 foot decent down steep stone steps brings the trail back into the jungle. The trail was dark, passed through more ancient ruins and crested at the entrance to the "Gateway to the Sun". Standing in the Sun Gate, the lost city of the Incas is visible two miles and 1000 feet down on a butte in the high valley above the river. After a few much coveted pictures the runners fly down the stone paved highway and enter the sacred courtyard of Machu Piccu and the finish.

The Inca trail is, without a doubt, one of the great treks in the world. But even if you have trekked often and in other challenging situations, bear in mind the sustained altitude of this trek - an average of 8,000 feet with two high passes: Warmiwanusqa (Dead Woman) at 4,200 m (12,600 ft) and one at 3,850 m (11,550 ft). The "trail" ranges from Inca stone highways to Inca stone steps and as one trekker who completed the walk declared: this should be called the Inca Steps, not the Inca Trail.

If you can take the rigors of the up and down, the high passes, the hot suns and cool to cold nights the rustic camping conditions, you will be aptly rewarded. You will encounter scattered Inca ruins, rivers, fast flowing streams, lush meadows, forests with tall trees and giant ferns, cloud forests, foaming waterfalls, terraces and spectacular vistas of snow capped mountains all along the way - Punasillo (6,245 m), the Vilcabamba range and Salcantay (6,270 m) to name a few. The "trail" begins at Km 88 and ends at the Intipunka (Sun gate) with the most magnificent of all panoramas of the famed Lost City, Machu Picchu. Along the way your Indian porters carry all your gear except your day pack, leaving you unburdened to hike at your own pace. All gear except personal gear and sleeping bag (can be rented) are provided and all the camp and cooking responsibilities are taken care of by your trek staff.

It is not advisable to do this on your own; go with an organized trek. You can join a small group from Cuzco - allow a few days prior for acclimatization. Departures are on Sunday from Cuzco by train to Km 88 and most normally you spend 3 nights camping on the trail and the 4th morning arrive at Machu Picchu. You have the day to explore and you camp down below along the shores of the Rio Urubamba for the night, and return to Cuzco on the afternoon train on Day 5. Be sure to bring along with you in your personal gear rain poncho, sun glasses and plenty of sun protection, insect repellent, flashlight with extra batteries and of course plenty of film. Plan to layer clothes; long pants and long sleeves provide additional sun protection and additional warmth when needed. Good trekking boots are a must.

THE INCA TRAIL TO MACHU PICCHU - CUSCO Machupicchu was connected to the capital city of Cusco and other cities by well-made roads. The Inca Trail to Machupicchu is known as the most famous trekking route in South America because of the mix of different aspects it has to offer the visitor. It begins at Kilometer 88 on the train line to the Valley of La Convencion, in a place called Q'oriwayrachina. It is located within the boundaries of the Machupicchu Historical Sanctuary, a protected reserve set up by the Peruvian government in 1981 in order to preserve the natural beauty and cultural remains which are of great scientific and historic value. The trail belongs to the district of Machupicchu, in the province of Urubamba, which is in the department of Cusco.

CLIMATE AND ENVIRONMENT.- The climate is relatively mild all year-round, with heavy rains from November to March, and dry and hot weather from April to October, which is a recommendable time to visit. The annual minimal temperature runs from 8#176; to 11.2#176;C. In the months of June, July and August the temperature can often fall below zero. The annual maximum temperature varies from 20.4#176; to 26.6#176;C. The terrain is fairly jagged, with many gullies and streams fed by glaciers which eventually pour into the Urubamba river, which crosses the area forming a deep valley which runs through the granite base of Vilcabamba for more than 40 km through a variety of eco-systems.

LANDSCAPE.- The natural surroundings are impressive and the balance achieved between nature and Inca architecture is striking. The Vilcabamba mountain range boasts peaks higher than 6,000 meters such as Salkantay and Huamantay among others. The blend of mountains, jungles and valleys create a fantasy world where the spectacular dawn and sunset are shrouded in mystery.

FAUNA.- This is abundant and varied. The existence of species in danger of extinction such as the spectacled bear (Tremarctos Omatus), the Cock-of the-Rocks (Rup[[exclamdown]]cola Peruviana), the dwarf deer (Pudu Mephistopheles), etc. was one of the reasons why the government decided to declare it a Conservation Unit. The park includes species like the puma, Andean fox, river otter, Taruka (Huemul deer), wildcat, ferret, etc. There are birds like the Cara Cara, hummingbird, torrent duck, parrot, wild turkey, and many other colorful smaller birds. There are also reptiles like the Jergon Bothrops and the coral micrurus snake (lethal for its venom), lizards, frogs, and numerous Andean and jungle fauna which inhabit the Sanctuary. This abundant wildlife makes the Sanctuary ideal for tourists and researchers who wish to watch or study the animals.

FLORA.- The large natural areas are filled with a variety of forest species which vary according to the habitat. The forest vegetation is represented by trees such as cedar, romerillo or intimpa, laurel, etc. There are also species like Ocotea, Pedocarpus, Guarea, Weinmania, Clusia, Cedropia, Cinchena, Eritrina or Pisonay, and Ilex among others. The decorative plants have made the Sanctuary famous. Experts have identified more than 90 species of orchids, and many species of begonias and puya cacti. Most of the area is covered by herbaceous, shrublike and arboreal plants. The varied conditions have created an ideal environment for the growth of diverse plant life that runs from thick jungle like the cloud forest to the sparsely covered mountain tops.

ARCHAEOLOGY.- Apart from everything that has been mentioned, there is also the Incas cultural heritage. The Inca Trail, which was well built, crosses dense forests and deep canyons. There are 18 archaeological complexes dotted along the trail which can be seen in all their splendor. These are made up of housing, irrigation canals, agricultural terracing, walls and shrines, which are irrefutable proof of the existence of important human settlements.

TOURIST FACILITIES HOT SPRINGS: At a distance of 800m East of the town of Aguas Calientes, there are under ground hot sulfur springs which bubble up from the rocky under ground at varying temperatures. The especially-built pools at this resort are the basis of its use as hot mineral baths. The average temperature of the water runs from 38#176; to 46#176;C. There are also changing rooms, bathrooms and a small snack bar.

RAIL TRANSPORT: In order to get to Kilometer 88 one can go by train from Cusco. Another alternative to get to Kilometer 88 is to go by automotive transportation to Chilca at Km. 77 and down by car to Km. 88.

TOURIST TRANSPORTATION: There is a fleet of buses that link Puente Ruinas station via a narrow, winding road to the Tourist Hotel. The drive takes approximately 20 minutes to get there and another 20 minutes back. The service runs all day, though the frequency depends on the amount of tourists. There is a trail between Puente de Ruinas and the Machupicchu Tourist Hotel. The walk takes approximately an hour.

SIGNPOSTING: There are signposts located in different parts of the trail using a series of words and international symbols. In the majority of places, these signs give the walker the necessary information about a certain spot, its climate, distances and services. These signs are classified into information, prevention and restriction.

DESCRIPTION OF THE ROUTE.- Based on a 4 days - 3 nights tour. The total distance of the trail is approximately 39.6 km. and begins at Km.88 at a place called Q'oriwayrachina. To begin the trail, you must cross the Kusichaca bridge, (an important Inca bridge which using Inca techniques, has been built with steel cables which allow visitors to cross the Urubamba River). Then you head over to the left bank through a Eucalyptus grove and start the day calmly. Almost immediately, you will come across the archaeological complexes of Q'ente, Pulpituyoc, Kusichaca and Patallaca. From this last spot, follow the trail along the left side of the Kusichaca River in the area with the same name where you will not only see the bridge but also you will find tombs, aqueducts, terraces, roads and a canyon. Continue until you reach the small peasant village of Wayllabamba and Inca aqueducts. It takes around four hours to cover the 9 km up to this spot. One can camp here for the first night, but for comfort we recommend staying in Llullucha 1.6 km further on. The second day is more difficult as the hiker will have to climb up to 4,200 meters, crossing the Warmiwausqa pass, the first and the highest. If you suffer from "soroche" (altitude sickness) it is best not to stop and descend quickly to the valley of the Pakaymayu River, where you can camp. This spot is 7 km away and an approximate eight-hour walk. The third day is the longest but most interesting. You will be able to visit impressive archaeological complexes such as Runkuraqay, the second pass, at 3,800 meters above sea level. This is a walled complex with interior niches that perhaps was a small place for rest, guardpost and worship place. After crossing the second pass, descend to Yanacocha (the black lagoon), to then climb up a path with stone steps until you reach another cluster of buildings which attracts the attention of visitors. This spot is called Sayaqmarka, a pre-Hispanic complex with narrow streets, buildings erected on different levels, shrines, patios, canals and a protecting outer wall. At the top of the buttress one can see many constructions which lead one to suppose they once were a temple and an astronomic observatory which had a permanent supply of water and excellent food storehouses. Sayaqmarka is a place filled with mystery and enchantment. The approximate distance to Runkuraqay is 5 km, which takes 2 hours. This complex lies at 3,600 meters above sea level. There are excellent paths and a tunnel through this complex. We recommend you camp near the Phuyupatamarca ruins or 3 km further on at the Wisayhuayna Visitors Center, where one can buy food and drinks or use the bathrooms. The Phuyupatamarca ruins are better preserved than those seen before now. It has a solid base built down to several meters in some cases. The Wiaywuayna ruins were given the name possibly because of the abundance of a beautiful type of orchid which flowers nearly year-round in the whole area. The Peruvian government and the Viking Fund signed an agreement in 1940 to investigate the area, and sent the Wenner Gren expedition led by Professor Paul Fejos. But despite the expedition, there is no precise information about the specific function of six groups of dwellings near Machupicchu. They are divided up into four well-defined sectors which are: the agricultural sector with many terraces, the religious sector, the fountain sector and the residential sector where the houses are located. On the fourth day, which starts around 8 a.m., the walker arrives at Machupicchu at around 11 a.m. after 8 km of hiking through the jungle. Follow the signaled route and drink some water at the Wiaywuayna Visitors Center. The path is clearly marked but try to avoid getting too close to the cliff edge. It is forbidden to camp in Intipunku. Leave your equipment at the control gate and enjoy getting to know the most important monument in this part of the continent. You have time to walk around Machupicchu until mid-afternoon. Check train timetables to return to Cusco. If you plan to stay in the town of Machupicchu (Aguas Calientes), the distance from the station of Puente Ruinas to Machupicchu is 2 km. It takes around 20 minutes to walk down a narrow path which runs parallel to the trainline. We recommend you check for trains before walking the path.

RULES GOVERNING THE VISIT OF TOURISTS:

Every person who enters the Machupicchu Historical Sanctuary and uses the authorized trekking routes must heed the following rules provided by government authorities:

Give requested information to authorities and official entities.

Pay the entrance fee to the Inca Trail or other path.

Do not litter.

Use public installations without deteriorating or destroying them.

Do not make campfires.

It is strictly forbidden to extract, depredate or buy any variety of flora in the Machupicchu Historic Shrine.

It is strictly forbidden to capture, hunt, depredate or buy any wildlife in the Sanctuary.

Camp only in the places indicated. It is forbidden to camp inside archaeological constructions or restricted areas.

Behave in orderly fashion so as not to disturb other hikers.

Any violation of any of these rules will lead to police or park guards intervention so as to enforce the respective sanction. Respect the rules and avoid unpleasant incidents.

One of the most interesting, short and accessible treks in the region is the one leading to the enigmatic Inkan City of Machupicchu. The best time to do the Inka Trail is during our dry season between May to September; however, this does not mean that there is no possibility of getting rains or showers because they simply are unforeseeable even by this season. The first thing when getting ready is to get the necessary camping equipment. When dealing with organized excursions, normally the tour operators supply all that is necessary except for the personal equipment that may also be rented in the several specialized agencies by the Qosqo's downtown area.

If the trek is carried out by the traveler's own, then he must be very careful about the equipment to be carried. Besides the items already indicated he must get the following elements: canteen, flashlight, matches, knife, cooking gear with stove, pots, jars, fork and spoon, candles. Food consisting of light products such as instant soups, noodles or spaghetti, fish cans, cheese, ham, rice, semolina, salt, pepper; dry fruits, oats, powdered milk, instant tea, coffee or chocolate; refreshment packs, jam, butter, candies, bread (kept in plastic bags it will be O.K. till the last day). Even more, it will be necessary to take a small personal first aid kit containing a bandage, sterile cotton, gauze, adhesive bandages, analgesics, antiseptic ointment or liquid, diamox or coramina for those who suffer altitude effects, insect repellent, sun screen, Vaseline. Coca leaves are also very useful since that they are used to make infusions or they could be chewed in order help people get adjusted to the altitude, as well as for mitigating tiredness, thirst or hunger. Normally, water is found in all the spots described in this book as campsites. However, it is always commendable to boil the water, or otherwise to use chlorine or any other purification device or tablets to make it drinkable. It is recommended to take light clothing for the sunny days as well as warm ones because in certain sectors the nights may be cold with temperatures under 0° C (32° F). Do not forget a sun hat or cap, towel, toilet paper; shoes must be preferably waterproof hiking boots with ankle protectors. Depending on your interests also carry a photo or film camera, binoculars, sun glasses, compass, a good trail handbook, etc. All the equipment including the food should have a light or moderate weight for the hiker; some few extra grams become heavy and unbearable on the hike. In order to sleep do not leave your belongings outside your tent since in some sectors, especially during the first hiking days some nighttime robberies were reported. It is not recommended to hike all alone, do it always along with some other hikers; there is a Safety Committee in order to grant help to travelers but which is seldom effective. Moreover, it is recommended not to move away from the trail or the signaled way; if you ever have doubts ask the other travelers coming after you.

There are some basic rules that must be kept in mind carrying out the trek, such as:

- Set your campsite only in the signaled sectors, it is completely forbidden to do it inside or close to the Inkan buildings;

- Avoid pollution of the Machupicchu Historic Sanctuary, inside where the Inka Trail is. In the last years there was an enormous deterioration in the trail's hygiene and sanitation; many irresponsible visitors defecate in the ruins or over the trail, or leave their garbage wherever they want without considering that there are many others like them who would like to enjoy an agreeable and pollution-free surrounding. It is recommended that every visitor group should take their garbage out of the Inka Trail or ask their porters to do it, especially all non organic waste;

- Setting fires is not allowed and neither is he use of local wood for that purpose; setting fires against the Inkan walls damage them irremediably causing their stones crack;

- It is not allowed to gather flowers or other vegetable species; therefore, it is forbidden to spoil flora of the Historic Sanctuary as well as capture or hunt its wild fauna as many of the animal species are endangered. The Machupicchu police are fully authorized to enforce penalties or arrest those breaking the rules.

- The Inka Trail fee is U.S. $ 17.00, including one day of visit in Machupicchu.

This hike takes approximately four days and is considered to be moderately difficult. The best time for this hike is the dry season, from May until the end of October. The peak tourist season in the Andes. There are fewer tourists during the rainy season, from November up until April, since it is very wet and cold due to the constant rains. Some parts of the trek become very slippery making the hike longer and more difficult. Most tourists who wish to hike the Inca Trail, can arrange do it through a travel agency. These will provide tourists with all the necessary equipment, such as proper camping and cooking equipment, food, transport, first aid kits as well a cook, porters and professional guides if so desired. At Machu Picchu, you will Find places to stay to suit all budgets, such as the Hotel Machu Picchu Ruins as well as various hostels in Aguas Calientes. The food in this region is varied and tasty. There are several small restaurants next to the train station.

Hiring of Porters: Those who wish to do the trail independently are advised to hire porters to carry their gear. The quechua speaking porters, known as huayruros, tend to only charge a relatively small fee for their services. They can be easily found in the village of Ollantaytambo, a community that has kept many of the Inca customs and habitat

The best place to start the Inca Trail is at Chillca - Km 76 on the railway to Machu Picchu. You can also get there by bus. Another means, probably most commonly used by backpackers, to travel on the local train to Km 88, a place known as Kariwayrachina. It goes from San Pedro station in Cusco daily for Quillabamba and takes roughly four hours. If you start the trek from here, the hike is twelve kilometers shorter.

Royal Trail: A more direct Inca Trail to Machu Picchu has recently been discovered. This route, known as the Royal Inca Trail, which can now be used by tourists, starts at Km 104 of the railway. very close to the archeological ruins of Chachabamba, where the Incas worshipped many Andean deities. By walking the Royal Trail you can reach the citadel of Machu Picchu in one or two days. You will pass by the ruins of Choque Suy Suy, Wińay Wayna ("Always Young") -where you can spend the night- Inti Pata ("Place of the

Sun"), Huayractambo ("Resting Post of the Winds"), and Inti Punku ("Sun's Gate"). Inti Punku, the entrance gate to the great citadel of Machu Picchu, is the highest point on the Royal Inca Trail.

Watching your Health: Getting accustomed to the high altitudes is essential, it usually takes about 3 days. When travelling to Cusco and the Inca Trail, you must get used to the attitude to prevent problems such as soroche, altitude sickness. Soroche does not only make you feel sick but it can have more disagreeable consequences such as headaches or lung problems. On the first day at these high altitudes, you should fake as much rest as possible. Eat very little and drink plenty of liquids. Mate de coca tea is especially recommended as it is renowned to have great digestive and healing properties.

While doing the Inca Trail, you are advised to drink only boiled water and at night, tea or mote de coca. You should never drink water from the springs as it could well be contaminated. It is common for cattle of the area to be carriers of o certain virus, that produces an intestinal disease known as Giardea. The Inca Trail is basically a safe route, although there are some stretches with some rather

precarious precipices. If you want to properly take in the scenery, you are advised to stop, so as to avoid any distractions that might lead to accidents. You really should not ever leave the trail as it very easy to get lost or disorientated.

Protecting the "Sanctuary": Please remember never to litter or pollute this natural habitat, the "Historical Sanctuary of Machu Picchu", and do not damage or deface any of the archaeological sites along this route. You are advised not to camp among or near the ruins, and to be careful when you light a fire. Forest fires are a definite liability in the area. Always bear this phrase in mind: "Take nothing but the images captured by your camera. Leave nothing but your footprints." If we all respect these principles, it will really help preserve the Inca Trail, considered by UNESCO as "a Heritage of Mankind", for future generations.

What to bring and what to wear: You should bring at least two changes of mountain clothing, as well as a pair of shorts and a couple of short-sleeve T-shirts. Taking two pairs of sports shoes or trekking boots can also be a great help. You should take a knitted cap (chullo), a scarf, some socks, a pair of gloves, a sweater, or thick jacket and some waterproofs for the nights. You will also need a sleeping bag, a mat and o small napsack for your personal belongings as well as a big dufflebag or a rucksack to carry all of this. We also strongly recommend you to take with you a pair of UVA sunglasses, some sun block (15 spf minimum), mosquito repellent, a flashlight (extra batteries and light bulb), a first aid kit, a sponge bag, water canteen, a bathing suit and a towel.

New Inca Trail Fee

IF ADOPTED, the new regulatory structure, outlined below, will go into force on August 9th 2000. It covers ALL the major trails leading to the Machu Picchu Historical Sanctuary. The plan was announced on May 9th in the form of joint resolution number 002-2000-UGM-CD from the National Institute of Culture, and INRENA, the National Parks Authority. However the plan is not without critics, including the Mayor of Cusco, and the Heads of the Guides Association and the Association of Tour Operators. The head of the Cusco INC Ing. Gustavo Manrique has defended the new prices saying that they will ensure that access is restricted to those people who really want to enjoy the area.

One feature of the new plan is a requirement for tour operators taking clients on the trail to pay an annual licence fee equivalent to about $3400US. Groups of up to 10 independent travellers who do not wish to use a tour operator will be allowed to hike the trail if they contract an independent licensed guide to accompany them, and as long as they do not contract any other persons such as porters or cooks. There will be a maximum of 500 visitors per day allowed on the trail, but whether that is on a 1st come 1st served or by prior reservation is unclear.

Other features are that operators would pay a fee of $15 per each porter and other trail staff, and that porters loads be limited to 20kg. Littering is banned, as is carrying plastic water bottles hikers must carry canteens only. Pets and pack animals are prohibited, although Llamas are allowed as far as the 1st pass! Groups will have to use approved campsites and not be allowed to camp any where else.

PRICES:

ROUTES 1 AND 2: KM 82 AND KM 88 TO Huayllabamba and Machu Picchu ADULTS $50US Students and children under 15 $25US

ROUTE 3: Salkantay to Huayllabamba and Machu Picchu ADULTS $50US Students and Children under 15 $25US

ROUTE 4: Km 82 to Km 88,KM 104, Wińay Wayna and Machu Picchu ADULTS $50US Students and Children under 15 $25US

ROUTE 5: Km 104 to Wińay Wayna and Machu Picchu ADULTS $25US Students and Children under 15 $15US

ROUTE 6: Salkantay to Huayllabamba and Km 88 ADULTS $25US Students and Children under 15 $15US

After January 15, 2000, train fare from Cusco to Machu Picchu will be:

Inca Class: $80.00 round trip

Autovagon: $50.00 round trip

Local: S/15.00 one way (The Cusco Clubhouse staff anticipates that use of the local train will be limited to Peruvians.)

I have read in a Peruvian newspaper that the new regulations are postponed for about 60 days. From maybe October "only" 500 persons can start the Trail and the fee is about 25/50 USD (student/non student). No independent travelers from that time can walk the Trail alone, but there will be 10 persons in a group (without agency) and they have to walk together during the day. You have to reserve the trip also in advance !!! there will be checking points along the Trail.



HISTORY

The trail was a very important part in the organisation in the empire of the Incas, Tawantinsuyu. This huge kingdom from Quito in Equador and Santiago to Santiago in Chili was gouverned in the capital of Cusco. When the Spanish conquered this empire, they said that the Incas had the best organised society of the world (16th century). It is known that it took the runners, who were called the chasquis, 3 days to bring a message from Lima to Cusco, while the Spaniards with their horses needed at least two weeks. Fish from the ocean arrived in less than 3 hours in the city of Cusco that is situated in the middle of the Andes. Parts of the Inca Trail still exist and is the most exciting way to get to the sacred city of Machu Picchu. It takes a bit of effort and good condition to do the trail.
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